Force is a vector quantity; its units are newtons, N. Forces can cause motion; alternatively forces can act to keep (an) object(s) at rest. Further infor-mation on types of force can be found in leaﬂet 2.3 (Types of Force). A resultant force is the single force which represents the vector sum of two or more forces. For

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A discussion on various ways to construct a matrix in R. There are various ways to construct a matrix. When we construct a matrix directly with data elements, the matrix content is filled along the column orientation by default.